如果我们用核武器攻击太阳会发生什么？What would happen if we nuked the Sun?
2022-09-03 翻译熊 8246 0 0 收藏 纠错&举报
What would happen if we nuked the Sun?
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Send “a” nuke? That’s like throwing a grain of sand in the ocean and expecting to see some significant result. Send all our nukes (every one on the planet) and it’d be like throwing a stone the size of, say a cigarette lighter flint, into Lake Michigan.
The sun is a thermonuclear furnace of immense size and mass. It runs by fusion of atomic materials like a hydrogen bomb. Our puny H-bombs are a fraction of its output every second. Our smaller, fission devices (A-Bombs) aren’t even a millisecond of the sun’s output.
The reason is something called relative scale. Here’s a photo of a scale model of our solar system.
Any more questions?
The scale of things in the Cosmos never ceases to astonish me. There are stars that make our Sun look dinky. And our Sun is 99% of the mass of our system.
Just one small correction - the biggest bomb we ever made released as much energy as one second of sunlight striking Earth - the actual output of the sun in one second is about a billion times larger.
9 orders of magnitude isn’t really a small correction.
To be honest I was pretty surprised to learn that Earth absorbs a billionth of the sun’s energy, it's many orders of magnitude higher than I would have guessed.
That said, I take your point.
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The Sun’s energy goes out in all directions from it.
The Earth is really far away, and really small (small in comparison).
So the best way to picture it intuitively is that the Sun’s radiating light goes off in every direction, and only a very tiny bit of it hits the Earth.
Kinda makes you feel tiny, right?
You should check out some of those universe size comparison videos. By the end of the video you begin to realize that we as a species honestly don't matter in the grand scheme of things. We really are just some infinitely tiny speck. It's humbling really.
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Also, the sun is actually nuking itself all the time. The sun is actually a nuclear reaction happening all the time. So if you add a tiny tiny tiny nuclear explosion from a bomb, it would be insignificant, and it would already be doing the same thing the sun is doing.
I find a good way of thinking about how big the Sun is, is to consider that the Sun is losing 4 tons of mass per second, has been doing so for billions of years, and will continue to do so for another couple billion years before anything really noticeable happens.
The mind boggles when we try to grasp how insignificant we are in the cosmos. Our tiny blue marble pales in comparison to the size of the sun (Sol). And yet…
Our sun is nothing remarkable or enormous. Not in the scale of the universe’s stars. At some point the mind just cannot grasp how enormous some planets and stars really are.
In reality our sun is actually quite Big, at least compared to the rest of the 99% of stars our sin is both really big and really shiny, is just that that 1% is composed of true monsters which are on a weight clases of their own, but those stars are the exception not the rule
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Well, in the frxwork of chaos theory, dropping a grain of sand in the ocean can have disastrous consequences.
Oh, so that’s why we have global warming. As a kid, I tossed sand into the ocean. Sorry, didn't know that would happen. PS Read the poem about that guy who was hesitant about eating a peach. Ignore the part where he shoots himself in the head.
Ugh i bet when i peed in the ocean i upset the current and water temperature
Then we’d better stop the billions of grains of sand that get washed back and forth by the tides and those nasty Sahara storms which can dump huge amounts of sand everywhere. And don’t get me started on all those dangerous rivers.
Meanwhile, I’m working out exactly where on the sun I need to drop my bomb.
Still a long way from building death star. But knowing us, I know we'll get there sooner than we think.
Okay, now…what if we threw an Earth-sized ball of pure hydrogen into the Sun?
Amusing question. Short answer: Not a whole lot would happen.
Without getting too deeply into the mathematics, let me ask you at what speed this blob of H2 is moving towards the sun? Let’s just use 40 Km/sec. Earth normally orbits the sun at around 30 Km/sec so 40 is a reasonable number. That’s roughly 89,500 mph. For convenience round it up to 90,000 mph.
So our ball of H2 has to travel 92,960,000 (92.96 million miles) moving at 90,000 mph. From 1 AU (earth’s orbit) it’ll take 1,032 hours to reach the sun — about 43 days, not counting an acceleration due to gravitational pull. But will it reach the sun at all?
My best guess is — not much will happen.The sun would barely notice it had been fed about 260 billion cubic miles of Hydrogen. In terms of “adding fuel to the fire” I think it’d be like comparing all the fuel emitted by the fuel injector nozzles of a NASCAR engine for 1 second to the amount of fuel the engine used for the entire race.
Volume of sun: 339,116 trillion cubic miles(!!)
Volume of Earth: 260 billion cubic miles
“Send all our nukes (every one on the planet) and it’d be like throwing a stone the size of, say a cigarette lighter flint, into Lake Michigan.”
The total megaton capacity of all nuclear weapons on Earth is about 7000
The amount of energy from the sun that just hits Earth every minute is 65000 megatons.
I’m pretty sure all our nuclear weapons hitting the sun at once, would be like a tiny grain of sand thrown into the ocean…
Well, that is simple. If any of these conditions were a tiny bit off, there will be no one theorising about this. So the “well tuned universe” theory is just a poor understanding of cause and effect. These conditions seems perfect to us because we were born from them. In other words, our surroundings shaped our way of understanding what is perfect, and that always was and always will be the conditions that exist in our world. This hypothesis needs no one to set these conditions, as long as the are possible. Something happening at astronomical odds it's not even remotely impossible.
The sun is big.
Really, really big.
Like, mind bogglingly big.
Did I mention the sun is huge?
Nuclear detonations are perhaps the largest single "event" that mankind has ever created - the energy released by a nuke is absolutely phenomenal.
However, it's only a large amount of energy compared to our low energy environment. In energy terms, the Earth is really dull. It's an incredibly low energy environment - which is why it's perfect for the development of life.
However, the surface of the sun is not dull. It's huge. And hot. And energetic. A nuke wouldn't even make a dent in this.
Various parts of the surface of the sun undergo “tiny" temperature fluctuations over the course of the day - the energy of these tiny oscillations about the mean value are bigger than the energy released by every nuclear weapon ever built by mankind.
This means that if we threw our entire nuclear arsenal at the sun, we wouldn't be able to tell the difference between the energy from the nukes, and random thermal noise from the sun.
Even if we concentrated all the nukes in the same spot, this single concentrated blast pales in comparison to the energy released in solar flares and the like.
The sun is scarily powerful.
Did I mention it's also really big?
Great. The OP could be asked, what happens when you put a small matchstick on the Sun? On the scale of the Sun's energy, our nukes are not much bigger than a small matchstick - they will be roundoff errors.
And in any case, the Sun itself is a nuclear reactor.
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It's better than just that - it's a nuclear fusion reactor, something we're still struggling to create here on Earth.
I don’t know why an nuclear fusion reactor is hard to make when we can do fission. It is weird.
Breaking up an unstable atom with a lot of neutrons is very different from try to fuse two atoms together. The Uranium U-235 wants to break apart and we are just helping it a bit by hitting with neutrons. Hydrogen atoms don’t want to merge with other nucleus unless they can be convinced in a big way.
I was in college once and a few of the students were all terrified of the concept of nuclear waste. I understand that energy grade Uranium is more refined, but I don't know how they understand this stuff was in the Earth for billions of years before us, and the world did OK. They were all terrified that we would turn into zombies or something. I wasn't proud of where I did my Associates studies.
I made the joke that if we were so scared, why didn't we just shoot it all into the sun. I get that the only actual problem is logistics, but I thought, "Yeah, that would solve this problem."
The class was horrified because the sun is important and that we have to take care of it, so they were afraid of poisoning it with radiation...
I'm really not proud of where I got my Associates.
Massive celebrations on the streets in Liverpool.
Liverpool’s 30-year boycott of The Sun is one of the most successful of all time
That is, of course, if you mean The Sun newspaper. It’s not very popular in Liverpool because of a factually inaccurate article they wrote in 1989 that slandered the fans of Liverpool FC.
Now if you mean the G2V yellow dwarf star that is located about 93 million miles from Earth (150 million km to those in Liverpool), even if you could build another Tsar Bomba and dump it into the Sun, it wouldn’t do a thing. The Sun star is several orders of magnitude more powerful and even a 62-megaton nuclear weapon detonating on its surface would not affect it a bit.
Seriously, you’re talking about something so large, massive and powerful that it has been functioning for 4.6 billion years and will keep on functioning in the same manner for another five billion years before it starts to run out of fuel, even though it’s fusing an enormous amount of hydrogen into helium every second—the same principle that Tsar Bomba worked on with just a relatively small amount of hydrogen.
If you want to “nuke the Sun,” you’d do better to focus on making the people of Liverpool happy, and leave the G2V yellow dwarf alone.
Daniel Whose Favorite City is Kamakura, Kanagawa
In the late 1990s I was once briefly confronted by a gentleman wearing Liverpool FC colors for bringing a copy of The Sun into the lavatories of the London Underground. He could tell I was a tourist, and was actually quite friendly, but felt compelled to share with me the source of his city's frustrations with Murdoch and his publication.
He was also quite relieved and rather amused when I informed him that I was already aware of the story, and that the only reason I'd obtained a copy was because the lavatories were out of toilet tissue.
He readily agreed that my intended use of the paper was, quite possibly, the only purpose for which it was well suited.
To understand the level of enmity between Liverpudlians and the Sun imagine if shortly after 9/11 a newspaper had run an article not only blaming New Yorkers for the attack but saying they were literally pissing on the firefighters trying to rescue people and robbing the corpses of the victims.
There was once a drunk ant that decided to attack an elephant, goaded by its also drunken friends.
When it finally reached the neck area, the friends kept yelling: Choke him, choke him!
Guess what happened to the elephant?
If you guessed “absolutely nothing, the elephant is so big it didn't even notice any of the ants or the so-called choking”, you'd be right.
Our “Nuke” is the ant’s pincers. The best weaponry we have.
And the sun in proportion is way bigger even than the elephant.
So sure, let’s spend the ants’ weaponry to choke the elephant.
Or let's worry about other stuff, in the knowledge that the sun is big. And the typical solar flare that messes our equipment week by week is much, much more energy than the biggest nuclear explosion we can muster (that's why we detect its effects all the way here).