为何四大古代文明都不是起源于欧洲？Why didn't any of the four ancient civilizations originate from Europe?
2022-04-12 翻译熊 20801 0 1 收藏 纠错&举报
Why didn't any of the four ancient civilizations originate from Europe?
- 小麦什么时候传播到古代中国并开始广泛传播？ 2021/07/03 25328 192 1
…because of this little guy, and itsevolution.
Wheat was a wild plant native tohighlands of the Anatolian Plateau. It took the hunter-gatherers of Anatolia afew thousand years to domesticate wheat.
At first, wheat was another wild plantthat people could eat. Then, people started to cultivate wheat, and the processof sextive breeding started.
Wild wheatwas a mountain plant that liked cold snowy winters and hot dry summer. It tookquite some time to grow this plant in Mesopotamia, where winters are warmer.Once a suitable breed was achieved, everything changed. Mesopotamia, Egypt andthe Indus Valley thrived with abundance of food, and the first civilizationswere born.
NorthernEurope wasn't suitable for wheat cultivation. European summers were wetter andcooler. The landscape was filled with forest. It took thousands of years forthe Northern Europeans to develop a breed of wheat good enough to compete withthe Mesopotamian wheat, and to cut all the forests for fields.
Joshua Moshiach, 执行助理 (2013至今)
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The oldest civilizations that I am aware ofare in order from the oldest : Mesopotamia, The Indus Valley, Egypt and TheMayan’s. Basically it boils down to climate, river systems and the fertility ofthe land. There are many others. At that time Europe was mostly forest. Youwill note that none of these civilizations was started in a forest. Europedoesn’t have a stable climate. It has seasons that are far more extreme. Theland was nowhere near as fertile. Plenty of game to hunt but not much free landon which to plant the crops necessary to feed a city.
You need an urban center, because thensome population can do things other than work to feed themselves. You get alarger leisured class with more free time to think. Elsewhere people are toobusy surviving to work out a writing system and civil code.
Derek Kent, 前护工(2005-2016)
If I remember correctly Jared Diamond hasa useful map in his text Guns Germs and Steel early on showing the spread ofdomesticated crops across Eurasia.
Given the starting point in the Tigrisand Euphrates river valleys the knowledge of agriculture and the crop varietiesnecessary for different local climates took awhile to spread outward.
Europeans were still largely herders whenSumeria, Egypt, and the Indus Valley civilizations were waxing and waning.China was, as always, its own unique civilization, creating its own path farfrom the other three who enjoyed robust trade among each other. China grew adifferent set of crops as well, with rice the principle grain, contrasting towheat in the Indus River Valley, Sumeria, and Egypt.
As the crops and the the knowledge ofagriculture expanded people began to settle down and build permanentstructures. Archeology digs reveal a predictable pattern of settlements, towns,and eventually cities radiating out from the Middle East over time anddistance, documenting the spread of civilization.
The eastern Mediterranean shoresprospered first, then islands across the sea, and finally colonies from theGreeks, Phoenicians and others appear in Africa and Italy and Spain. The reallatecomers were the northern Europeans, who would not be tamed until well intothe Middle Ages.
Now woven among the threads of thisconventional narrative are acknowledgements that various local exceptions cropup: Malta has ruins going back to the Neolithic and Stonehenge is but the mostfamous of northern European cultural remnants, not the oldest nor only. Soaspects of civilization did spread to Europe, and there is evidence forhomegrown local cultures with a fair degree of sophistication.
But if we’re talking written records andtechnology the big players are closer to the starting point in Iraq.
There were likely many civilizations thatbecame extinct throughout the early world including Europe.
There were definitely many more than fourancient civilizations.
Europe has been for millennia acrossroad, when draught or famine drove people from geographical areas south,west and east they likely resettled in Europe.
The immigrants possibly brought with themdiseases that locals had not developed immunity and vanished,
At this point in time in humandevelopment there was little written language or technology, that would haveleft any trace of their existence.
The greatest civilization in history mayhave lived in Europe st one early time . There would be no material trace ofthem now except a couple of genes.
‘Very likely’? What is your basis forthat? Europe north of the Pyrenees, the Alps and Greece was heavily foresteduntil about 1,000 BC. Outside of Plato’s Atlantis, there are no indications of‘civilization’ in Europe contemporaneous with Egypt, the Indus cultures orMesopotamia.
Not true. The Minoans traded with theEgyptians.
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And the Minoans lived where? Besides,Egypt was ‘ancient’ even before the Minoans could write.
The Minoans lived on Crete. You knowthat. They were the first European Bronze Age civilization. Pictures of Cretansappear on Egyptian tombs. Egyptian civilization lasted for so long that othercultures could rise and fall and still be contemporaneous. In fact, the Induscivilization did that.
My point is that Egyptian civilizationwas ancient long before Crete became civilized. The question dealt with theorigin of European ‘civilization’. ALL the evidence indicates Europe was ahowling wilderness compared to Egypt for more than 1000 years. Crete wasfocused on the eastern Mediterranean and the Agean. There was no European‘civilization’ while the Egyptian ‘Old Kingdom’ reigned.
It wasn’t a howling wilderness. It justdidn’t have urban settlements and all their organizational trappings. You’reacting as if you think being able to lay brick in the hot sun and have a scribenote how many bricks you used is superior to living on a Swiss lake.
If you were living on a Swiss lake in2000 BC would have been very cold and very hungry. The Helveti that JuliusCaeser intercepted were not traveling south to get an early seat at the Monacotables.
You would have been cold and hungry formuch of Europe’s history.
Actually, there are six early civilizationsthat arose independently: Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, China,Mesoamerica, and the west coast of South America.
There are some commonalities to them.Four of the six—Egypt, China, Mesopotamia, Indus—centered on large riverbasins. The Olmec civilization, the earliest Mesoamerican civilization, arosein an area with multiple rivers. The Norte Chico, the earliest Peruviancivilization, centered on the Fortalenza, the Pativilca, and the Supe rivers onthe coastal plain. All had generally temperate to warm climates—the furthestnorth is China—that encouraged the development of agriculture on a large enoughscale to support an increased population, after which follows settlements andsome form of centralized government.
Europe had large rivers, but a colderclimate. That is probably the biggest reason why civilization did not firstdevelop there. Civilization in the Mediterranean basin spread from Egypt andMesopotamian around the entire basin before penetrating further.
William Smith, 博学;在许多领域的深造和学位证明了这一点
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Thanks for the A2A.
The four Old World “cradles ofcivilization” (Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus Valley, and China) alldeveloped civilizationaround river valleys and they all controlled thewater necessary to keep agriculture going and prevent flooding. Prior to about12,000 years ago, the surrounding areas had been much greener and able tosupport a dispersed population. The people gradually started moving to wetterareas (the rivers) as the climate became more arid. (At least the first three;I don’t know about climate change in China. The Chinese Bronze Age also startedsignificantly later.)
This pattern did not repeat itself inEurope, because there were no great rivers surrounded by inhospitable land thaturbanized in the same pattern.
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Europe north of the Alps has very toughclayey soil. There wasn't enough of a population to require writing. The easyto plow river valleys of the Huang basin, Mesopotamia, & Ancient Egyptgained larger populations to require a bureaucracy. Meso-America has freshwater cenotes. Europe's population only expanded when the horse collar wasintroduced from the Far East c.1000 AD.
Plamen Galabov, Self Employed Video producer andPhotographer (1990-present)
The climate and the natural resources arethe logical answer to your question. However can we consider the questioncorrect? Look at this one;
“Bulgaria's Varna Gold Treasure isconsidered the oldest processed gold in the world dating back to thetime of the Chalcolithic (Aeneolithic, Copper Age) Varna Culture(usually dated to 4400-4100 BC). It was discovered in 1972 in the socalled Varna Chalcolithic Necropolis”.
A little is known about the civilizationaround and from the lands now under the Black sea. The human history stillkeeps secrets. What we read and learn is based on the discoveries and knowledgesystemised in the last few centuries. Even discovered and well studied theEgyptian pyramids or the amazing creations of the South American civilization areenigma for the modern science.
Plamen Galabov,视频制作人和摄影师 (1990至今)
Europe’s ancient civilisation wasdestroyed and usurped by the Romans. Etruscans are responsible for the progressof Rome. And Grimaldi culture was whitewashed over the years. Civilisationsflourish under polytheism and then history gets rewritten by invadingmonotheistic dictatorship
Because all of the four ancientcivilizations are agricultural societies, and Europe was too cold foragriculture back then. Egypt, Babylon, India, and China are all situated intropical, subtropical, or warm temperate zones. Europe, in contrast, lies inthe cold temperate zone.
The climate for agriculture was moreconducive to growing grain further south in Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, andSouth East Asia. Agriculture caused people to anchor to one place and startvillages which evolved into cities. Cities are the engine of civilization.
Civilisation exist due to several reasons
River mostof civilization exist near river e.g nile gave ancient Egyptian civilization ,Indus give Harappa civilisation
Lack ofdager these are at place of optimum place that's why they florish
Optimumtemperature average temperature of Europe is low while these region these areoptimum
Though my first thought was climate, mynext was that civilization grew best at the mouths and deltas of major rivervalleys like the Nile, the Tigris/Euphrates, the Indus, and the Yangtze…
There are theories that assume the risingocean levels thousands of years ago suddenly flooded what is now theMediterranean Sea and then the Black Sea, as waters crested over and theneroded away what is now the Pillars of Hercules/Strait of Gibraltar, and thenthe Bosporus. Any ancient civilization at the low end of southern Europe’s riverslies under these seas.