UK universities urged to end drugs zero tolerance and focus on harm reduction

英国大学敦促结束毒品零容忍,转而把重点放在减少危害上
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(Jeni Larmour, 18, who died on her first day at Newcastle University in 2020, after consuming a lethal combination of alcohol and ketamine.)

(2020年,18岁的珍妮·拉莫尔在进入纽卡斯尔大学的第一天就去世了,死因是酒精和氯胺酮的致命组合。)
新闻:

UK universities are being urged to ditch a zero-tolerance approach to drug use and focus instead on public health and harm reduction, with drug testing and non-judgmental support for students seeking help.

英国大学被敦促放弃对吸毒的零容忍态度,转而关注公共卫生和减少危害,为寻求帮助的学生提供毒品测试和非评判性支持。

The warning came as new research found students are less likely to use drugs than those of the same age group in the general population. Of the minority that do, more than two out of five would like to reduce their use.

这一警告是伴随一项新的研究发现,与一般人群中同年龄段的人相比,学生吸毒的可能性更小而发出的。在少数吸毒的学生中,超过五分之二的人希望减少摄入。

Experts remain concerned that a zero-tolerance approach still deployed on some campuses, including fines, suspensions and expulsions, does little to reduce drug use and could deter students from coming forward for help.

专家们仍然担心,一些校园仍然采取零容忍的方式,包括罚款、停学和开除,这对减少吸毒几乎没有作用,而且可能会阻止学生主动寻求帮助。

Almost one in five (18%) out of 4,000 students who took part in a poll for Universities UK (UUK) – the organization that represents 142 higher education providers – told researchers they had used drugs in the past, while one in eight (12%) had used drugs in the past year.

“英国大学”是一个代表142所高等教育机构的组织,在4000名参加调查的学生中,近五分之一(18%)的人告诉研究人员,他们过去曾使用过毒品,而八分之一(12%)的人在过去一年中使用过毒品。

Of those who had ever taken drugs, the most commonly used in the past year were cannabis (53%), cocaine (8%), prescxtion drugs (7%), ketamine (6%) and ecstasy (4%).

在曾经吸毒的人中,去年最常用的是大麻(53%)、可卡因(8%)、处方药(7%)、氯胺酮(6%)和摇头丸(4%)。

Among non-students, almost 18% of 16- to 24-year-olds in England and Wales reported drug use in the year up to March 2023, according to the Office for National Statistics, while in Scotland, 23.5% of the same age group had used drugs in the year prior to being surveyed.

英国国家统计局的数据显示,在非学生群体中,在截至2023年3月的一年中,英格兰和威尔士16岁至24岁的年轻人中有近18%的人报告使用过毒品。而在苏格兰,23.5%的同年龄段人群在接受调查前一年使用过毒品。

According to UUK, only one in five students who have used drugs in the past 12 months have asked for support from their institution. Of those students who did seek support, nearly half (46%) said their university’s drug policy was a barrier, while more than a third (37%) feared the consequences of coming forward.

根据英国联合大学的数据,在过去的12个月里,只有五分之一的吸毒学生向学校寻求过支持。在那些寻求帮助的学生中,近一半的人说他们学校的毒品政策是一个障碍,而超过三分之一的人担心站出来承认的后果。

Jeni Larmour, 18, of Newtownhamilton in Northern Ireland, died in October 2020 on her first day at Newcastle University after consuming a lethal combination of alcohol and ketamine given to her “by another”, according to a coroner.

据一名验尸官称,来自北爱尔兰纽顿汉密尔顿的18岁女孩珍妮·拉莫尔于2020年10月在纽卡斯尔大学的第一天死亡,死因是摄入了“另一个人”给她的致命酒精和氯胺酮。

Her mother, Sandra Larmour, welcomed the report and said her own views on drug policy had changed. Where once she might have backed zero tolerance, she now favours educating and supporting students, though she said universities should never condone drug use.

她的母亲桑德拉·拉莫尔对这份报告表示欢迎,并表示她自己对毒品政策的看法已经改变。她曾经可能支持零容忍,但现在她支持教育和支持学生,尽管她说大学永远不应该容忍吸毒。

“If you tell a bunch of teenagers ‘don’t do something’, you’re on a hiding to nothing. Anybody that’s got children knows that – they’re going to go out and do it,” Larmour said.

拉莫尔说:“如果你告诉一群青少年'不要做某事',你就会一无所获。任何有孩子的人都知道这一点——他们会出去做这件事的。

“But if you’re doing something in an open and informed manner, that can only help. If you’ve got people there with insight, knowledge and professional experience that can give them guidance on it, and they feel they can come forward, that’s a very positive step.”

“但如果你以公开和知情的方式做某事,那只会有所帮助。如果你在那里找到了有洞察力、知识和专业经验的人,可以给他们提供指导,他们觉得自己可以挺身站出来,这是非常积极的一步。”

The SafeCourse charity, which was set up to promote harm reduction policies on UK campuses, welcomed UUK’s new frxwork for action. Its founder, Hilton Mervis, whose son Daniel died of an accidental overdose, said a zero-tolerance approach may have discouraged him from seeking help because of fear of expulsion.

为在英国校园推广减少伤害政策而设立的安全课程慈善机构对英国新的行动框架表示欢迎。它的创始人希尔顿·默维斯的儿子丹尼尔因意外服药过量而死亡。他说,零容忍的态度可能使他因为害怕被驱逐而不愿寻求帮助。

“Drugs left a hole in my family’s life because Daniel was failed by zero-tolerance policies,” he said, adding that the college now has a “clear harm reduction policy which puts the safety and wellbeing of their students first.

他说:“毒品在我的家庭生活中留下了一个空洞,因为丹尼尔没有遵守零容忍政策。”他补充说,学院现在有一个“明确的减少伤害政策,把学生的安全和福祉放在第一位。”

“Yet many universities continue to declare zero tolerance on drugs. In practice, this means zero action. This puts students at risk. The time has come for universities to adopt active, student-led harm reduction approaches.”

“然而,许多大学继续宣称对毒品零容忍。在实践中,这意味着零行动。这让学生处于危险之中。现在是大学采取积极的、以学生为主导的减少伤害方法的时候了。”

The UUK report, Enabling student health and success: tackling supply and demand for drugs and improving harm reduction, published on Tuesday, also calls on universities to promote and inform students of drug checking services. “Students often do not know the contents and strength of illicit drugs at the point of purchase,” it says.

本周二公布的这份名为《促进学生健康和成功:解决毒品供求问题,减少危害》的报告还呼吁大学推广并告知学生毒品检查服务。报告称:“学生在购买时往往不知道违禁药物的成分和强度。

“The consequences of this can be fatal. Drug checking provides an independent service which encourages students to have any substances of concern tested by chemists, and the results discussed during a consultation with a health professional.”

“这样的后果可能是致命的。药物检查提供了一项独立的服务,鼓励学生让化学家检测任何令人担忧的物质,并在咨询健康专业人员时讨论结果。”

It also suggests a sliding scale of warnings of increasing severity for repeat incidents over an agreed timefrx to ensure a university is not perceived as permissive about the use of drugs.

该报告还建议,在商定的时间框架内,对重复发生的事件进行逐步加重的警告,以确保一所大学不会被视为纵容使用毒品。

Larmour urged parents whose children are preparing to go off to university in the autumn to talk to their child. “Make sure that you’re open and honest with them.” To youngsters about to leave home, she said: “Be aware of your surroundings. Be aware of who your friends are. Think before you do anything.

拉莫尔敦促那些准备在秋天上大学的孩子的父母和他们的孩子谈谈。“确保你对他们是开放和诚实的。”对于即将离家的年轻人,她说:“注意你周围的环境。知道谁是你的朋友。三思而后行。

“I miss Jeni every day of my life. I think about her all the time. Everything I do, I do it for one reason. That’s to keep her name alive, to keep her name on people’s lips, to keep her memory alive.”

“我每天都在想念珍妮。我一直在想她。我做的每件事,都只有一个原因。这是为了让她的名字流传下去,让她的名字留在人们的嘴边,让她的记忆永存。”