法国大革命后的法国是什么样的政府?（二）What type of government was France after the French Revolution?
2023-04-21 汤沐之邑 3557 0 0 收藏 纠错&举报
What type of government was France after the French Revolution?
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Who bankrolled the French Revolution?
It’s rather simple: Swiss bankers. Necker was one. They wanted a central reserve bank, and they got it thanks to a process similar to the one they used to get the American Federal Reserve Bank. In America, they battled for a century against presidents who resisted , before they managed to circumvent Wilson, who went on saying he had unwittingly betrayed his country.
In France, they had a few helpers, but only got what they wanted with Napoleon.
However, I very strongly doubt that Jewish bankers had that much influence. Never underestimate Calvinist bankers…
Did the French Revolution yield a positive result for France?
this answer took me over half an hour to type so i am thankful of you all taking the time to read it:) up-votes greatly appreciated:)
In the long term it yielded a positive result as it made France independent from their monarchy’s rule. It also encouraged other countries to rebel against there rulers such as Ireland with Theobald Wolfe Tone against the British rulers in 1798.
But in the short term things wasn’t so good.
It lead to the reign of terror where around 40,000 people died and 6,000 of them in Paris alone.
It lead to the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte who started wars throughout Europe where around five million people died but like a few other people, one of the reasons of his downfall was the failed French invasion of “Russia”.
So depending on what way you look at it the French revolution had its ups and downs just like every other war.
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Because of the “bourgeoisie”, the wealthy middle class, who were kept as second class citizens because they were commoners and not aristocrats. They created wealth, paid heavy taxes and had no political power. Besides, the whole 18th century had seen an economic and cultural boom with big freedom of expression, and a tradition of political criticism had appeared with Voltaire, Montesquieu and Rousseau. Despite the image of peasant and urban mobs, all the leaders of the Revolution were from bourgeois families, or else they would not have had an education. It took highly literate people to create such a system.
France was not the only country to have a “bourgeoisie”. The other countries who had a wealthy middle class happened to be protestant ones. Britain and Sweden had parliamentary systems, so that wealthy commoners had their word to say. The Netherlands and Switzerland had semi-republican systems from their beginning, and aristocracies hardly existed. Germany was a bunch of absolutist statelets, but there was a number of free cities where merchants held all the power. The French system remained very rigid and not adapted to modern realities, as an absolute monarchy supported by a very conservative church. So were Spain, Austria or Italian states, but these had weak bourgeoisies.
France was not the first country to have a republic, not the first to have a revolution, not the first to have a constitution, not the first to have a parliament. Not the first to execute its king (England had done this in 1649…). It was however the first country to make a declaration of human rights, to have a national flag, a national anthem, a national holiday. It was the first to proclaim reason as the main principle of its ideology.
The infamous “Terreur” came in the later years, after neighboring monarchies tried to stop contagion, and the regime became paranoid and saw traitors everywhere. Mass public executions, including the royal family’s, made understandably a horrific impression around the world. Still, the ideology of “freedom” was popular, as the Revolutionary system was replaced by different governments (Consulat, directoire) which were equally held by the bourgeoisie. Without popular support, Napoleon would not have been able to organize mass mobilization against the enemies around France, and defeat them all.
Why did France become a republic after the French Revolution?
The French Revolution had resulted in the mass extermination of most of their aristocracy, from the King (Louis XVI) downwards. About 16,000 people were executed, though not all of them aristocracy; for many of the revolutionaries it was a great opportunity to settle old grudges.
From then onwards, Napoleon became the first President of France, and duly created himself as Emperor, and in due course this began to turn into a new dynasty as his nephew Louis became Napoleon III, France’s last King.
His career ended ignominiously, after the failure of a war against Prussia in 1870, and he was unceremoniously dethroned. He was exiled to England, where he died three years later, and is buried there.
The duration of the French Revolution is of some historical controversy, being defined variously (as far as I know) as beginning in 1789 (by some definitions, on July 14, the date of the Storming of the Bastille) or earlier, and concluding either with Napoleon’s assumption of the First Consulship on November 9, 1799, or his final defeat at the Battle of Waterloo on June 18, 1815 and subsequent deposition on June 25 and exile to the island of St. Helena, where he died in 1821.
The Bourbon Dynasty was restored to the throne of the Kingdom of France on July 8. The condition of the state was of disarray and utter defeat, which Napoleon encountered pointedly when he failed to garner continued political support for his resistance against the coalition of the European powers upon returning to Paris from Waterloo. Bourbon rule would continue until the Revolution of 1848, but the power of the monarchy was markedly curbed after 1836, the intervening period of constitutional rule being referred to as the “July Monarchy.” French Republicanism and the throes of empire would be reinvigorated by the figure of Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, Napoleon I’s grandnephew, who first served as the first President of the French Republic and later declared himself emperor (styled as Napoleon III) on December 2, 1852. That polity would meet its demise in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871, with a Prussian/German victory at the Battle of Sedan leading to Napoleon III’s capture and his abdication from his self-proclaimed imperial throne. For some historians of modern France, the “French Revolution” as a political and cultural phenomenon could be said to extend into the late nineteenth century, which its effects to some extent continuing to reverberate in contemporary French political culture.
As for the earlier abolition of republican government under Napoleon I, the de jure declaration of its end (the proclamation of Napoleon’s I’s First French Empire) occurred on May 18, 1804, with the adoption of a new constitution. Napoleon was crowned as Napoleon I on December 2 of the same year.
It was not, not as revolutions go. There were perhaps 30,000 deaths. By comparison, the American Revolution killed 130,000, and the US population was far smaller.
The Haitian Revolution killed over 300,000, including 40% of the entire Haitian population, an attempted genocide by Napoleon.
The Mexican Revolution killed 10 million. The Russian Revolution killed up to 12 million.
The image of the FR as so bloody comes from royalist, anti radical, or even anti democratic propaganda. Among the victims were 300 or so aristocrats. Killing them got as much attention as killing 300 of the wealthiest Americans would today, eg Gates, Buffet, Zuckerberg, Kennedys, Bushes, etc. (No, not Trump, he’s way down the list.)
How did the government change during the French Revolution?
I would be interested to read what someone schooled in France would say. France was a monarchy prior to the French Revolution. Although the monarch had absolute power, he shared administration with the Estates-General, which was largely controlled by the nobility abd the church. The third estate (in theory “the common people,” but in fact the middle class) took control of France after the storming of the Bastille in 1789; accordingly, you need to know about the Tennis Court Oath :
On 20 June 1789, the members of the French Third Estate took the Tennis Court Oath in the tennis court which had been built in 1686 for the use of the Versailles palace. The vote was "not to separate and to reassemble wherever necessary until the Constitution of the kingdom is established.
At this point, France looks much like a constitutional monarchy,at least, on paper. But the Third Estate could not run the country on a day to day basis as the monarchical bureaucracy had done.