网友讨论：为什么日本不被称为“帝国“？但现在的国家元首仍然被称为”天皇“？Why Is Japan Not Called An Empire?
2023-02-26 大号儿童 8606 0 0 收藏 纠错&举报
Why Is Japan Not Called An Empire?
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The reason is that there is no emperor of Japan and never has been. Emperor is a European title, not a Japanese one. The title of the head of state is Tenno, which loosely translated means "heavenly sovereign". In other words, the devine ruler on earth, a post which is ceremonial today.
The Japanese term for emperor, 天皇, means heavenly emperor only because the translation strips the religious context from the character 皇. This character also contains the meaning of Amaterasu, the goddess of the sun in Japanese mythology. Therefore, the actual term should actually mean the earthly representative or descendant of Amaterasu. This comports well with the Japanese imperial creation myth. Of course, historically speaking, Japan was also an empire as each han swore fealty to the Shogun and "worshipped" the emperor. Plus all that stuff with Ryukyu and the Ainu.
日语中的 "天皇"意思是天上的皇帝，这只是因为翻译时剥离了皇字的宗教背景。这个字还包含了日本神话中的太阳女神天照的意思。因此，这个词实际上应该是指天照的人间代表或后裔。这与日本皇室的创世神话很吻合。当然，从历史上看，日本也是一个帝国，因为每个藩都向幕府将军宣誓效忠并 "崇拜"天皇，再加上琉球(Ryukyu)和阿衣奴人(Ainu)的那些事。
Your notion that Japan was an empire in the 1940s is inaccurate. To be an empire, the emperor needs to RULE all the lands in the realm. Japan occupied many countries in East Asia in the 1940s, but Japan did not actually rule most of these places except Taiwan island (50 years) and Korea (45 years). And I don't think Taiwan and Korea took the Japanese emperor as their's. I would say Japan wanted to become an empire but with limited success.
That is how most empires operated actually. Historically the constituent realms ran themselves mostly independently, provided they paid tribute.
A little quirk of history is that most Japanese Land-Grabs after 1940 in South-East Asia were because they wanted to secure access to oil fields in the area. I wonder what would have happened if they knew they already had vast oil resources in Manchuria, for example in the Daqing Oil Field, but that was only discovered in 1959.
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it is not just paying tribute, the being ruled was not allowed to have its own military and foreign policy. Other than that, the economy was mostly left for the being ruled so that they could pay tribute for the ruler and his military expense.
The Roman empire was comprised of many provinces and areas that were ruled either by their own local king or by a governer who had broad authority to do whatever he felt like provided taxes were collected. Most earlier and contemporary civilizations operated in pretty much the same way, simply because centralized governance was impossible in those days.
the Emperor of Japan functions nowadays as a Temporal Head of Faith. More like a Caliph than a Pope
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Caliphs and Pope's are the same
I think a better analogy with the business world be to compare a kingdom to a company and an empire with a holding/conglomerate.
I find it interesting that the official name of Ireland is just ‘Ireland’ and not ‘the republic of Ireland’, which is widely used informally to avoid confusion between the country of Ireland and the the Island of Ireland, which included Northern Ireland (part of the United Kingdom)
我发现一个有趣的现象，爱尔兰的官方名称只是 "爱尔兰"，而不是 "爱尔兰共和国"，后者被非正式地广泛使用，以避免爱尔兰国家和爱尔兰岛之间的混淆，后者包括北爱尔兰（英国的一部分）。
Not at all. Caliph is a title that is usually hereditary, while the Papacy is not. The Papacy is an elective title.
The Emperor is the Head of State of Japan also he is the Head of Shinto Faith
Do not confuse the Constitutional Status of the Emperor
It's like The Queen of UK is the Head of Church of England
Technically Japan's full name is 日本国 which means "state of Japan."
The Constitution of the Empire of Japan existed from 1889 to 1947. So in 1947 the name of the empire was officially abolished.
《日本帝国宪法》存在于1889 - 1947年。1947年帝国的名称被正式废除。
Note that not only is it possible to have an Emperor with no Empire, it is (or at least it was) also possible to have an Empire without and Emperor.
几个世纪以来，葡萄牙和法国都有帝国，而且至少在某些时期，它们被特别称为 "帝国"，但葡萄牙和法国的元首都不是皇帝（就法国而言，不包括拿破仑时期），而是国王（或女王）。而且，即使他们成为共和国，也一直把他们广泛的海外领土称为 "帝国"（直到二战后这种说法过时，他们开始称它们为 "海外省"、"海外部门"、"海外领土"、"海外集团"...）
To maybe fix your company analogy to better function: a kingdom is like a single corporation and it's king/queen is like the CEO, whereas an empire is like a corporate group like a large multinational, e.g. Samsung, and the Emperor is the CEO.
“Open the country. Stop having it be closed.”
And thus, Japan opened itself to the world.
Yeah, the king is the CEO of a company and the Emperor is the Chairman of the holding group that owns that company.
No. Historically a kingdom operated very much like a mafia family. In fact, the mafia is actually organized according to feudal power structures, it is not a coincidence. The boss is the king. The capos are the lords. The made men are the knights. The associates are the men at arms.
The Emperor retaining his title, or even his throne, was NOT a condition of surrender. The war might have been a few months shorter if the Allies agreed to that, but the the terms were for unconditional surrender. It was decided that it was more useful to retain him after the fact.
Defining what an empire is, is a lot more complex than just scale. There has been a lot of schoarly debate into what defines an empire and there is really no single agreed upon definition. Some scholars even go with the "I know it when I see it" definition, while for others it has to do with interactions between core and periphery, and others it requires that there be some sort of imperial agend or imperial motivation for there to be an empire.
The Japanese were holding out for the continuation of the Imperial system. That was rejected. Although they didn't demand he surrender the title up front, it seems clear that could be decided afterwards. It was very much an unconditional surrender.
So it wasn't an unconditional surrender. Yes, the Japanese demanded that the emperor maintain his role and title...even if it ended up being symbolic. That was it. No other conditions were made.
It was a unconditional surrender. The Emperor wasn't retained because of some demand by the Japanese and the Americans could have forced Hirohito to relinquish his power if they wanted to, but them ultimately deciding to retain him doesn't make their surrender any less unconditional.
Actually there was a central power in Japan. This is why the Emperor had so much influence even when his power was reduced.
Tennō translates less to Heavenly Emperor and more to Heavenly King, or even God King. Matthew Perry remarked about how Japan had two “empreurs” even before his arrival. I don’t know when English speakers starting calling it emperor
天皇少译为天帝，多译为天王，甚至上帝王。马修·佩里( Matthew Perry )甚至在他到来之前就谈到了日本是如何拥有两个"雇主"的。我不知道说英语的人什么时候开始称它为帝王。
The way I understand it, He offered to abdicate, but the Americans decided to avoid the issues that might cause by keeping him around.
Around when Japan was losing, they offer an conditional surrender to the American, and was rejected. The Allies said that they only accept unconditional surrender, which Japan accepted after the atomic bombs and the Soviet invasion of Manchuria. After the war there was a time that the emperor's fate was uncertain, and there was pressure to put him on trial for war crime. But the emerging cold war mean that it was better to keep an anti-communist emperor on the throne than to remove him.
While Imperare farthest origin of the word "Emperor", Emperor actually stems from a application of the latin word "Imperator"(commander/he who commands). Julius Ceasar was for example hailed as an Imperator (and the names became lixed to one another, see usage lf emperor in german Caesar > "Kaiser" or imperator > emperor in English
虽然Imperare是"帝王"一词的最远起源，但"帝王"实际上源于拉丁语"绝对统治者" (指挥者/指挥者)的应用。例如，朱利叶斯·塞萨尔( Julius Ceasar )被誉为"绝对统治者" (名字相互关联，见德语" Caesar "中的"皇帝" > " Kaiser "或"绝对统治者" )
The obvious reason is that Japan isn't really an empire anymore and calling it the "Constitutional Empire of Japan" sounds kinda weird so they just stuck with "Japan"
明显的原因是，日本已经不是一个真正的帝国了，称其为 "大日本帝国"听起来有点奇怪，所以他们只是坚持用 "日本"。
Japan itself calls its Foundion day as "Empire Day" (Kigensetsu) (紀元節) or National Foundation Day ,which celebrated every February 11 with Emperor Jimmu from 660 BCE
天皇/Tenno means emperor of Heaven,
meanwhile the emperor of China is called 天子/son of Heaven,
so this title seems to be exaggerating and ridiculous for other nations in East Asia,so ancient China, Korea, Vietnam ad other sinic nations just called emperor of Japan as king of Wa/倭王，
The dream of a world under one roof ,a world under the one sun ,never became a reality
I guess it is some unique English trait to call it some other name.
In Polish it is the Japan's Empire (Cesarstwo Japonii).
I always understood that the Emperor of Japan was an Emperor, simply because the Emperor of China was an Emperor. Thus when the English/Latin word was introduced to Japan there was no way the Japanese would accept a title that would put their ruler lesser than the Chinese Emperor.
Well, the kanji on the exit stamp they place on the passport says "The State of Japan" rather than just "Japan"
那么，他们在护照上盖的出境章上的汉字是 "日本国"，而不是 "日本"。
And country without a long official name I end up calling, "State of X" so in this case, I'd refer to Japan, as: "State of Japan". Except this doesn't work as well for Federal States, Like Canada, which I would call the "Federation of Canada," as Canada really has 10 States, It's 10 Provinces, and isn't a single State like Japan, Hungary, or New Zealand are.
如果国家没有一个很长的官方名称，我就叫 "X国"，所以在这种情况下，我就把日本称为"日本国"。 不过这对联邦制国家就不太适用了，比如加拿大，我会称其为 "加拿大联邦"，因为加拿大确实有10个州，是10个省，而不是像日本、匈牙利或新西兰那样的单一国家。
I also find it interesting there are British and American empires yet these empires have never had emprerors.
The word Emperor comes from the Latin for “commander and chief.” So the US could be called an empire with an elected emperor.
皇帝这个词来自拉丁语，意思是 "指挥官和首领"。 因此，美国可以被称为一个有选举产生的皇帝的帝国。
Historically, Tennō have existed for 1400 years, and at that time, Japan had several ethnic groups in disarray: Yamato, Kumaso, Hayato, Emishi...
In that sense, Tennō was an emperor at that time.
Canada is still technically the Dominion of Canada (it was never legally changed), but the title hasn't been used in any capacity since World War II.
Similar to my country, used to be called as 'Federation of Malaysia' but after the exit of Singapore, it literally just known as 'Malaysia'.
Spain was an Empire without an emperor.
Japan has an emperor without an Empire.
Little Brother complex looking at Big Bro China. China as the central power for millennia in East Asia recognized kings (王) in surrounding nations. Japan thought it was too good for such an arrangement and used the term 天皇, similar to the term used in China for emperor 皇帝.
This is interesting what you said here about the "Empire" part of the name, as Poland for example, sometime still calls Japan "CESARSTWO JAPONII" OR "CESARSTWO JAPOŃSKIE" - CESARSTWO meaning EMPIRE in Polish ;)
这是有趣的是你在这里所说的关于'帝国'部分的名称，比如波兰，有时候仍然叫日本' CESARSTWO JAPONII ' OR ' CESARSTWO JAPOSKIE ' - CESARSTWO在波兰语中是指帝国；)。
Video Idea: Why did some Empires not call their rulers Emperors/Empresses?
TLDR: just call the japanese head of state as "tenn-nou", as they use themselves. and "nippon"for "japan".
"emperor" being more powerful than a "king" wasn't always the case. the latter roman rulers called themselves "emperors" as they were that: "imperator" i.e. commander, of an army. the romans disliked kings because of their republic history.
king implies that the person has "divine right" to rule. but commander (emperor) was simply a military title. when the two got switched up, who knows? i think it was europe's obsession of being a roman imperator.
简而言之：就像他们自己使用的那样，把日本国家元首称为 "天皇"，把 "nippon "称为 "日本"。
国王意味着这个人有 "神圣的权利 "来统治，而指挥官（皇帝）只是一个军事头衔。 谁知道这两者是什么时候调换的？我认为这是欧洲人对成为罗马统治者的痴迷。
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I am Japanese. I've been wondering about it for a long time too.
After the war ended, it became necessary to revise the Constitution of the Empire of Japan.
At that time, I think that "Empire" was omitted because "Japan" was written in the revision draft made by GHQ.
I thought Canada's official name was the Dominion of Canada. It's very really used but I think some times at the Olympics opening / closing ceremonies Canada is listed under D instead of C.
By the way, I may be wrong, but I do believe that, because they haven't changed it since they were a dominion, Canada does have other words in their official name, being officially named the "Dominion of Canada".
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Technically speaking, Canada’s official name is still the Dominion of Canada. Many of you may scoff at this, because it’s not used in laws, titulature, etc. but no law was ever changed that official designated the nation as simply “Canada”, meaning our full, never used anymore, according to the letter of the law name is the Dominion of Canada
从技术上讲，加拿大的官方名称仍然是加拿大自治领（Dominion of Canada）。你们中的许多人可能会对此嗤之以鼻，因为它没有被用在法律、名称等方面，但从来没有任何法律被修改，正式指定国家为简单的 "加拿大"，这意味着我们的全称，不再使用，根据法律条文，名称是加拿大自治领。
Re: The business analogy - you missed a trick there. A small company's CEO is in charge of ... that small company. They might have a few other CE's in the mix, by and large the company is mostly self-contained as a singular entity. An Emperor is more like the CEO of a conglomerate. The conglomerate has individual divisions, subdivisions, and even entire other companies under the conglomerates control/ownership.
Empreror is equivalent to Shogun, in both the political and the military extent of the title. Tenno is something more like a Caliph (as someone noted in another comment) and not a Pope, and this considering the nature of the functions associated with the title Tenno/Caliph
从政治和军事上来说幕府将军与相当于皇帝，"天皇"更像"哈里发" ( Caliph (正如有人在另一篇评论中指出的) )，而不是"教皇"。
because last time they were an empire two of their cities got nuked and their territory was significantly reduced
China had an emperor & was considered the Middle Kingdom by the Chinese. Also it seems that the ruler of China was called the Emperor before Northern China united with South China. Sorta like any king of ancient Egypt was called the pharaoh.
Your five countries that do not have longer official names include four that are, in fact, kingdoms, Belize, Canada, Jamaica, and New Zealand (all ruled by the same monarch who rules your homeland), so why are they not called 'The Kingdom of X'?
So in the early days the Japanese Emperor was like the Merovingian Kings of France.
The Japanese "Emperor" isn't an emperor; that's a Western invention. The proper term is Tennō, which roughly means "Heavenly Sovereign."
Because last time they tried the empire thing it didn’t necessarily develop in Japans favour.
Japan wasn't called an empire when it was ruled by the Shogun, even though the Imperial Household has existed for at least 1500 years. The Japanese Emperor is more accurately the high priest of Shinto.
Why doesn't Japan do away with the Emperor entirely and just have a president?
When people talk about imperial Japan,they only talk about the period starting in the late 19th century,but not the empire before then, even the empire before Hokkaido was conquered.
They dont have an emperor, whatbthey got is a puppet. The real thing who dictate japan is the US.
I just realized that “Tokyo” is just “Kyoto” spelled sybillically backwards!
我刚刚意识到，" Tokyo "只是 " Kyoto "的反向拼写！